advertise here

Review Article

Epidemiology and Public Health Significance of Rabies

Year : 2017 | Volume : 5 | Issue : 1 Page : 55 - 67

Chalchisa Buzayehu Barecha1, Fikru Girzaw?2, R.Venkataramana Kandi3, Mahendra Pal4

1,2College of Veterinary Medicine,Samara University,P.O.Box No.132,Samara,Ethiopia 3Assistant Professor,Department of Microbiology,Prathima Institute of Meidcal Sciences, 4Consultant of Veterinary Public Health and Microbiology, 4 Aangan, Jagnath Ganesh Dairy Road, Anand-388001, India.

Address for correspondence: Dr Mahendra Pal, Consultant of Veterinary Public Health and Microbiology, 4 Aangan, Jagnath Ganesh Dairy Road, Anand-388001, India.



Summary: Rabies is one of the oldest recognized diseases affecting all warm-blooded animals and remains to be the most important zoonotic disease mainly affecting the developing countries. It is an acute, progressive and almost fatal encephalomyelitis caused by the Rabies virus and other Lyssavirus species of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease has worldwide distribution except in some countries where there is strict quarantine system, rigorous eradication program or natural barriers like mountains and rivers. Rabies occurs in more than 150 countries and territories. Of these, most deaths from rabies occur in developing countries with inadequate public health resources and limited access to preventive treatment. This category constitutes mainly the developing countries found in the Asian and African continents. This situation occurs because dog rabies is endemic with dog-to-dog transmission of the infection, which is associated with an ongoing threat to humans due to dog bite. Rabies transmission is usually from virus laden saliva of an infected animal which comes in the contact by the bite from animal to animal or animal to man. Being rabies virus is highly neurotropic; it has high affinity for the central nervous system. The lesions produced in the central nervous system and destruction of the spinal neurons results in the clinical signs manifested by the rabid patients. All rabies infected species usually exhibit typical signs of central nervous system disturbance, with minor variations among species. The direct fluorescent antibody test is the gold standard for rabies diagnosis. An important tool to optimize public and animal health and enhance domestic animal rabies control is routine or emergency implementation of low-cost or free clinics for rabies vaccination. Being rabies is a preventable disease, some possible prevention and control components include, making responsible pet ownership, routine veterinary care and vaccination, and professionals should provide public education about the disease. To facilitate the implementation of these prevention and control components, jurisdictions should work with veterinary medical licensing boards, veterinary associations, the local veterinary community, animal control officials and animal welfare organizations. 100%

Keywords : Dog bite; Distribution; Lyssavirus; Rabies; Vaccination; Zoonotic.


Open Access

Perspectives in Medical Research is committed to keeping research articles Open Access.Journal permits any users to read, download, copy, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles...
Read more